Personal Profile

Cai Kui

Associate Professor

Pillar / Cluster: Science

Tel: +65-64997453
Email: pnv_xhv@fhgq.rqh.ft

Website: http://people.sutd.edu.sg/~cai_kui

Biography

Cai Kui received B.E. degree in information and control engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, M.Eng degree in electrical engineering from National University of Singapore, and joint Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands, and National University of Singapore. Currently she is an Associate Professor with SUTD.

Cai Kui has more than eighteen years’ experience on research and development of advanced channel coding and signal processing algorithms and techniques for various data storage systems. Her research covered the entire evolution of the data storage technologies, ranging from optical recording (e.g. Blu-ray disc), longitudinal magnetic recording, perpendicular magnetic recording, bit-patterned media recording (BPMR), heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), to the recently emerged non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies and cloud storage systems and networks. She is the recipient of 2008 IEEE Communications Society Best Paper Award in Coding and Signal Processing for Data Storage, 2006 DSI Best Paper Award, and 2011 DSI Best Paper Award in Engineering. She has also been nominated in Year 2010 and 2011 for the Singapore President Science and Technology Award (PSTA).

Cai Kui is a senior member of IEEE and the Vice-Chair (Academia) of IEEE Communications Society, Data Storage Technical Committee (DSTC). She has served as the Symposium Chair and Technical Program Committee (TPC) for many IEEE conferences, including IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom), IEEE Communications Conferences (ICC), and IEEE International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). She also serves as the reviewer for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on Communications, and IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Job Openings

  1. President’s Graduate Fellowship, a premium PhD Scholarship, is immediately available in the general area of coding and signal processing. The corresponding research topics will make significant impact in both Academia and industry, and hence will provide a great opportunity for the career development of the students.  For a PhD candidate, a good degree (Bachelor or Master) in electrical engineering, mathematics, or computer science is expected. The applicants can contact Prof Cai directly through email: cai_kui@sutd.edu.sg
  2. Postdoc Research Fellow Positions are immediately available. We are looking for outstanding posdoc to work on advanced coding and signal processing for various emerging data storage and communication channels. Applicants should possess a PhD degree with demonstrated ability to conduct high quality research in coding and signal processing. Talented postdocs may also have the opportunity to collaborate with MIT professors in the related field. This position comes with very attractive salary and benefits. The start date is flexible. The position is for 3 years with possibility for renewal. Applications including a cover letter and CV can be sent through email to cai_kui@sutd.edu.sg
  3. Postdoc Research Fellow / Research Assistant positions are immediately available. We are looking for outstanding candidate to work on FPGA implementation of advanced channel coding and signal processing algorithms for various emerging data storage and communication channels. Applicants are expected to possess a Master or PhD degree with strong FPGA knowledge and experience, and preferably with some preliminary knowledge on error correction coding and LDPC codes. This position comes with very attractive salary and benefits. The start date is flexible. The position is for 3 years with possibility for renewal.

Education Background

  • Joint PhD, Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands &The National University of Singapore
  • M. Eng, Electrical Engineering, The National University of Singapore
  • B. Eng, Information and Control Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Research Interests

Primary research interests include coding theory, communication theory, and signal processing for various information storage systems and data communication channels, such as non-volatile memories (STT-MRAM, RRAM, flash memory, PCM), hard-disk drives (perpendicular recording, BPMR, HAMR, TDMR), disk arrays (RAID) in data centres, cloud hosting/computing, and distributed storage systems and networks.

  • Error correction coding (ECC)
    • Hamming/BCH/RS codes with hard and soft decision decoding
    • LDPC and turbo codes
    • Erasure codes
    • Message passing decoding algorithms and scheduling
    • Graph-based joint detection and decoding
    • Efficient FPGA implementation of ECC encoders and decoders
  • Constrained coding
    • Run-length-limited (RLL) codes, maximum transition run (MTR) codes
    • Dc-free codes
    • Endurance codes for non-volatile memories, such as rewriting codes and rank modulation
  • Channel detection
    • Equalization and detection for channels with ISI, data-dependant media noise, and insertion and deletion errors
    • Memory sensing schemes and detector for non-volatile memories channels
    • Two dimensional equalization and detection
  • Channel modeling and characterization
    • Physics-based modeling
    • Statistical modelling
    • Information theory based theoretic characterization
  • Network coding for distributed storage systems and networks

Research Projects

  1. “Development of parity-check codes based receiver for Blu-Ray disc optical recording systems”, Philips Research Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2002–2005
  2. “Modeling and channel algorithm development for bit-patterned media recording (BPMR)”, Information Storage Industry Consortium (INSIC), USA, 2009 – 2010
  3. “Two dimensional coding and signal processing towards 10 Tb/in2 magnetic recording”, A*STAR, 2010 – 2013
  4. “Non-volatile memories for high performance, radiation hardened aerospace application”,  A*STAR, 2012 – 2014.
  5. SUTD SRG, April 2015 – April 2018.
  6. “Radiation-resilient microcontroller for small-satellite applications”, OSTIN Space Research Program, NRF. June 2015 – June 2018
  7. “Design of novel channel codes for ultra-high density magnetic recording”, SUTD-MIT International Design Centre (IDC) Grant, September 2015 – September 2018
  8. “Advanced LDPC coding techniques for fast and reliable information storage and retrieval of solid state drives”, SUTD-ZJU Joint Research Grant, April 2016– April 2019
  9. “Development of novel channel coding and detection techniques for emerging non-volatile memories”, A*Star Public Sector Research (PSF) Grant, April 2016– April 2019
  10. “Multicoding for high speed and density nonvolatile memory with asymmetric errors “, MOE Tier 2 Grant, July 2017– July 2020

Awards & Achievements

  • 2014, Two patents licensed to Marvell Technology Group Ltd (first and major inventor)
  • 2008 IEEE Communications Society Best Paper Award in Coding and Signal Processing for Data Storage (first author)
  • 2006 Best Paper Award of Data Storage Institute (first author)
  • 2011 Best Paper Award in Engineering of Data Storage Institute (first author)
  • 2010 President Technology Award, Singapore, Nomination (team leader)
  • 2011 President Technology Award, Singapore, Nomination (team leader)
  • 1992 Best University Graduates of Shanghai, China

Selected Publications 

Selected Journal Papers

  1. K.A.S Immink and K. Cai, “Composition Check Codes,” accepted by IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, June 2017.
  2. K. Cai and K.A.S Immink, “Cascaded Channel Model, Analysis, and Hybrid Decoding for Spin-Torque Transfer Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM),” accepted by IEEE Trans. Magnetics, May 2017
  3. P. Chen, K. Cai, and M. Zhang, “”Non-Binary Protograph-Based LDPC Codes for 2D ISI Magnetic Recording Channels “,” accepted by IEEE Trans. Magnetics, April 2017.
  4. L. Kong, K. Cai, P. Chen, and F. Bing,  “Detector-aware LDPC code optimization for ultra-high density magnetic recording channels”,  accepted by IEEE Trans. Magnetics, April 2017.
  5. C. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Edge-based dynamic scheduling for belief-propagation (BP) decoding of LDPC and RS codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 525 – 535, Feb. 2017.
  6. C. A. Aslam, K. Cai, and Y. L. Guan, “Mitigating stuck-cell failures in MLC NAND ash memory via inferred erasure decoding,” revised for IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst.. Volume: PP, No. 99, pp 1-11, March 2017.
  7. C. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, K. Cai, and G. Han, “Low-complexity belief propagation (BP) decoding via dynamic silent-variable-node-free scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Lett.. vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 28 – 31, Jan. 2017.
  8. C. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, K. Cai, and G. Han, “Informed fixed scheduling for faster convergence of shuffled belief-propagation (BP) decoding,”IEEE Commun. Lett.. vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 32 – 35, Jan. 2017.
  9. C. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Retention-aware belief-propagation decoding for NAND ash memory,” accepted by IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs. Volume: 64, No. 6, pp 725 – 729, June 2017
  10. Qin, K. Cai, and Y. Ng, “Iterative Detection and Decoding for Nonbinary LDPC Coded Partial-Response Channels with Written-in Errors”, IET Communications, vol 10, issue 4, pp 399-406, 2016.
  11. Adnan Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Read and Write Voltage Signal Optimization for Multi-Level-Cell (MLC) NAND Flash Memory,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 64, no. 4, pp 1613-1623, Feb. 2016
  12. Adnan Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Detector for MLC NAND Flash Memory Using Neighbor-A-Priori Information,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. PP, issue 90, pp 1-10, Feb. 2016.
  13. Chua, K. Cai, and W.L. Goh, “Efficient Two-Write WOM-codes for Non-Volatile Memories”, IEEE Trans. Communs. Letter, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1690-1693, Oct. 2015.
  14. Ng, K. Cai, K.S. Chan, M.R. Elidrissi, and Z. Yuan, “Signal processing for dedicated servo recording system”, IEEE Trans.  Magnetic, vol. 51, no. 10, Article #: 3000905, Oct. 2015.
  15. Chen, K. Cai, G.C. Han, S.T. Lim, and M. Tran, “A portable dynamic switching model for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions considering both thermal and process variations”, IEEE Trans.  Magnetic, vol. 51, no. 11, Article #:1300704, Nov. 2015.
  16. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan and K. Cai, “Improving the Belief-Propagation Convergence of Irregular LDPC Codes Using Column-Weight Based Scheduling,” in IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1283-1286, Aug. 2015.
  17. M. Yuan, J. Shi, C.L. Ong, P.S. Alexopoulos, C. Du, A. Kong, S. Ang, B. Santoso, S. H. Leong, K. S. Chan, Y. Ng, K. Cai, J. Tsai, H. Ng, H. K. Tan, “Dedicated servo recording system and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans.  Magnetic, vol. 51, no. 4, Article #: 3100507, April 2015.
  18. K. Cai, “Vertical constrained coding for phase-change memory with thermal crosstalk”, Journal of Communications, April 2014.
  19. G. J. Han, Y.L. Guan, K. Cai, K.S. Chan, and L.J. Kong, “Coding and detection for channels with written-in errors and inter-symbol interference”, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 50, No. 10, # 3101106, Oct. 2014.
  20. Y. Ng, S. Zhang, K. Cai, Z. Qin, C.L. Ong, S. Ang, and Z. Yuan, “Performance of perpendicular magnetic recording with track squeeze using bidirectional pattern-dependent noise prediction detector”, Journal of Applied Physics, accepted.
  21. K. Cai, Z. Qin, and B. Chen, “Channel capacity and soft-decision decoding of LDPC codes for spin-torch transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM)”, Journal of Communications, vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 225-232, April 2013.
  22. Y. Ng, K. Cai, B.V.K. Kumar, Z. Qin, and T.C. Chong, “Bi-directional pattern-dependent noise prediction with LDPC codes for heat-assisted magnetic recording”, vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 2662-2664, Jun. 2013.
  23. Z. Qin, K. Cai, and K.S. Chan, “Iterative reduced-complexity detection for LDPC-coded 2-D Recording Channels”, IEEE Trans.  Magnetic, vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 2598-2602, Jun. 2013.
  24. S. Zhang, K. Cai, and Z. Qin, “A position dependent binary symmetric channel model for BPMR write errors”, IEEE Trans.  Magnetics, vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 2582-2585, Jun. 2013.
  25. G. J. Han, Y.L. Guan, K. Cai, and K.S. Chan, “Asymmetric iterative multi-track detection for 2D non-binary LDPC coded magnetic recording”, IEEE Trans.  Magnetic, vol. 49, No. 10, pp. 5215-5221, Jun. 2013.
  26. G. J. Han, Y.L. Guan, K. Cai, K.S. Chan, and L.J. Kong, “Embedded marker code for channels corrupted by insertions, deletions, and AWGN”, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 2535-2538,  Jun. 2013.
  27. Y. Ng, K. Cai, B.V.K. Kumar, T.C Chong, S. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Channel modeling and equalizer design for staggered islands bit-patterned media recording”, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 1976-1983, Jun. 2012.
  28. Y. Ng, B.V.K. Kumar, K. Cai, R. Radhakrishnan, and T.C Chong, “Bi-directional pattern-dependent noise prediction for heat-assisted magnetic recording with high jitter noise”, IEEE Trans. Magnetics,  vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 1819-1825, May 2012.
  29. S. Zhang, K. Cai, M. L, J. Zhang, K.K. Teo, W.E. Wong, and E.T. Ong, “Timing and written-in errors characterization for bit patterned media,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 47, No. 10, pp. 2555-2558, Oct. 2011.
  30. M. Shaghaghi, K. Cai, Y.L. Guan, Z. Qin, “Markov chain  monte carlo based detection for two-dimensional intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 471-478, Feb. 2011.
  31. K. Cai, Kees. Immink, Y.X. Lee, Z. Qin, and T.C. Chong, “Distance-enhancing constrained codes with parity-check constraints for data storage channels”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas  in Communications, vol. 28, No. 2, pp 208-217, Feb. 2010.
  32. Y. Ng, B.V.K. Kumar, K. Cai, S. Nabavi, and T.C Chong, “Investigation of PicketShift codes for bit-patterned media channels with insertion/deletion errors”, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 2268-2271, Jun. 2010.
  33. S. Zhang, K.S. Chai, Cai, B. Chen, Z. Qin, and S.M. Foo, “Write failure analysis for bit-patterned media recording and its impact on read channel modeling,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 1363-1365, Jun. 2010.
  34. Kees Immink and K. Cai, “Simple class of constrained systems with unconstrained positions that  outperform the maxentropic bound”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 55, No. 5, pp  2000-2003, May 2009.
  35. X. Zou, Z. Qin, and K. Cai, “Read channel simulation based on microtrack and micromagnetic modeling for one terabit per square inch magnetic recording,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), vol. 320, issue 22, pp. 3128-3131, Nov. 2008.
  36. Z. Qin, K. Cai, and X. Zou , “A reduced-complexity iterative receiver based on simulated annealing for coded partial-response channels,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol 43,  no. 6, pp 2265-2267, Jun. 2007.
  37. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “A general construction of constrained parity-check codes for optical recording”, IEEE Transactions on Communications., vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1070-1079, Jul. 2008.
  38. K. Cai, K.A.S. Immink , Z. Qin, and L.P. Shi, “Error correction code failure rate analysis for parity-check-coded optical recording systems”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 5870-5874, 2008.
  39. K. Cai, and Kees. Immink, “On the number of encoder states for a type of RLL codes”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 3313-3319, Jul. 2006.
  40. K. Cai, Kees. Immink, J.W.M. Bergmans, and L.P. Shi, “Constrained parity-check code and post- processor for advanced blue laser disc systems,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 45, no. 2B, pp. 1071-1078, Feb. 2006.
  41. K. Cai, J.W.M. Bergmans, Z. Qin, A. Padiy, and W. Coene, “Parity-check codes and post-processing for d=1 optical recording channels,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol 41,  no. 11, pp 4338-4340, Nov. 2005.

Selected Conference Papers

  1.  G. Song, K. Cai, and J. Cheng, “A union bound analysis for codes over binary asymmetric channels”, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, May 2017.
  2. K. Cai and Kees Immink, “A cascaded channel model and hybrid decoding for Spin-Torque Transfer Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM)”, IEEE International Magnetics Conference (Intermag), Dublin, Ireland, April 2017.
  3. P. Chen, K. Cai, L. Kong, and M. Zhang, “Non-binary protograph-based LDPC codes for 2-D ISI magnetic recording channels”, IEEE International Magnetics Conference (Intermag), Dublin, Ireland, April 2017.
  4. L. Kong, K. Cai, P. Chen, and F. Bing,  “Detector-aware LDPC code optimization for ultra-high density magnetic recording channels”,  IEEE International Magnetics Conference (Intermag), Dublin, Ireland, April 2017.
  5. C. A. Aslam, K. Cai, and Y. L. Guan, “On the recovery of retention-failure data in MLC NAND flash memory,”  Non-volatile Memory Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, USA, March 2017.
  6. C. A. Aslam, K. Cai, and Y. L. Guan, “Edge-based scheduling for decoding non-binary LDPC codes for MLC flash memories,” Non-volatile Memory Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, USA, March 2016.
  7. Qin, K. Cai, and S.H. Zhang, “Iterative symbol-level detection and decoding for nonbinary LDPC coded 2D Intersymbol Interference Channels “, Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, UK, Jun. 2015.
  8. B. Chen, K. Cai, G.C. Han, S.T. Lim, and M. Tran, “A portable dynamic switching model for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions considering both thermal and process variations”, Abstract of IEEE International Conference on Magnetics (Intermag), Beijing, China, 2015.
  9. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Dynamic write-level and read-level signal design for MLC NAND flash memory,”in Proc. Int. Symp. Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Manchester UK, July 2014, pp. 336-341.
  10. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Non-binary LDPC code with multiple memory reads for multi-level-cell (MLC) flash,”in Proc. Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA), Siem Reap Cambodia, Dec 2014, pp. 1-9.
  11. A. Aslam, Y. L. Guan, and K. Cai, “Low-Complexity Quantization-Aware Belief-Propagation (QA-BP) Decoding for MLC NAND Flash Memory,”in Proc. Int. Conf. Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS), Singapore, Dec 2015.
  12. K. Cai, “Vertical constrained coding for phase-change memory with thermal crosstalk”, invited paper, IEEE International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, (ICNC), Hawaii, Feb. 2014.
  13. K. Cai, Z. Qin, and B. Chen, “Modeling and information theoretic analysis of spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) ”, invited paper, Magnetics Symposium 2014, Singapore, Oct. 2014.
  14. K. Cai, Z. Qin, and B. Chen, “Channel modeling and soft-decision decoding of LDPC codes for spin-torch transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM)”, invited paper, IEEE International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, (ICNC), San Diego, Jan. 2013.
  15. K. Cai, Z. Qin, S. Zhang, Y. Ng, K.S Chai, and R. Radhakrishnan, “Modeling, detection, and LDPCcodes for bit-patterned media recording,” invited paper, IEEE Global Communications Conference(Globecom), Miami, Dec. 2010.
  16. R. Radhakrishnan and K. Cai, “Reverse concatenated watermark code”, Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Toronto, Canada, Jun. 2012.
  17. K. Cai, Z. Qin, R. Sibba, H. Meng, B. Chen, “Channel modeling and information theoretical characterization for spin-torch transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM)”, Technical Digest of The 3rd Non-volatile Memory Workshop (NVMW), San Diego, US, March 2012.
  18. Y. Ng, K. Cai, B.V.K. Kumar, S. Zhang, and Tow Chong Chong, “Channel modeling  and two-dimensional equalization for bit-patterned media,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Magnetic Recording (Intermag), USA, 2009.
  19. K. Cai, K.A.S. Immink , and Z. Qin “Distance-enhancing constrained codes for optical recording channels”, IEEE Intl. Conf. Global Telecommun.(GLOBECOM), New Orleans, Nov. 2008.
  20. Kees. Immink and K. Cai, “Simple class of constrained systems with unconstrained positions that outperform the maxentropic bound”, Proc. of 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 2008.
  21. K. Cai, Y.N. Foo, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “Combating media noise for high-density optical recording”, Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Jun. 2007.
  22. Z. Qin, K. Cai, and X. Zou , “A reduced-complexity iterative receiver based on simulated annealing for coded partial-response channels,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Magnetic Recording (Intermag), Baltimore, Jan. 2007.
  23. Z. Qin, K. Cai, and X. Zou, “Turbo multiuser detection based on local search algorithms”, Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Jun. 2007.
  24. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “On the number of encoder states for capacity approaching d=1 codes”, Proc. of 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 2005, Australia, Sept.2005.
  25. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “On the design of efficient constrained parity-check codes for opticalrecording”, Proc. Of 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 2005, Australia, Sept. 2005.
  26. K. Cai, V. Y. Krachkovsky, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “Performance bounds for parity coded optical recoding channels with d=1 constraint”, Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Alaska, May 2003.

Selected Patents

  1. K. Cai, A. Kong, and Z. Yuan, “DC-Free Constrained Codes for Disk Drive Systems with Dedicated Servo”, Singapore provisional patent application, 10201401781X, filed in April. 2014. Licensed to Marvell Technology Group Ltd in 2014.
  2. Chao Bi, K. Cai, etc., “Data storage device”, US patent 9202512, granted on December 1, 2015. Licensed to Marvell Technology Group Ltd in 2014.
  3. K. Cai and Z. Qin, “A memory device with soft-decision decoding,” US patent 8,917,540 B2, granted in Dec. 2014.
  4. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “Method and system for encoding and decoding information with modulation constraints and error control”, US patent 8,078,935, granted in Dec. 2011.
  5. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “Method and system for encoding and decoding information with modulation constraints and error control”, Japan patent, granted in Aug. 2012.
  6. K. Cai and K.A.S. Immink, “Method and system for encoding and decoding information with modulation constraints and error control”, Singapore patent, granted in Feb. 2010.
  7. K. Cai and Z. Qin, “An efficient and adaptive error correction coding scheme for high-density and high-speed NVM”, US patent application, filed on Nov. 2014.
  8. K. Cai and Z. Qin, “Adaptive Puncturing of LDPC Codes for Data Storage Systems”, Singapore provisional patent application, filed in June 2014.
  9. K. Cai and Y. Ng, “Normalization factor adaptation for LDPC decoding for disk drive systems”, Singapore provisional patent application, filed in Oct. 2013.
  10. K. Cai, “Constrained coding for non-volatile memories (NVM) with inter-cell interference”, Singapore provisional patent application, 201304048-0, filed in Jun. 2013.
  11. Y. Ng, B.V.K. Kumar, and K. Cai, “Bi-directional pattern-dependent noise prediction detector,” US provisional patent, 61/632,234, Feb. 2012.