Assistant Professor Sam Joyce published a book chapter in The Routledge Companion to Artificial Intelligence in Architecture.

His chapter focuses on early stage, including site and case-study exploration, early conceptual design generation, and option exploration.

AI as a collaborator in the early stage of the design
By Sam Conrad Joyce

The concept stage is a crucial time for a project, starting from a site and blank sheet and boldly dictating the design direction and key qualities, which will then be refined over subsequent stages. This chapter explores the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in this stage, and it explains the unique challenges and the demands on AI to support it. Dividing the concept stage into key activities, specifically site analysis, creative design ideation, and iteration with user feedback. For each activity, this chapter explains example implementations integrating a range of AI techniques including neural networks, generative adversarial networks, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding, self-organizing maps, interactive evolutionary optimization, and meta-parametric designs, covering a wide range of design scales, from street-furniture, circulation-spaces, airports, and urban planning. Each example demonstrates the benefits and potential of the given approach, as well as how the underlying learning mechanics inherently enable or limit the extent of analysis or creativity. It also considers the raw, labeled, and user-input training-data needed for each and how this determines the AIs capability. The chapter provides an indication of how these methods could be used now and could change the future early-stage concept design into a mixed-initiative collaboration between man and machine.

Find out more about the book at

Find out more about Prof Sam Joyce’s works at